ISC 12th Syllabus 2021 Check CISCE Board Class (XII) New Syllabi

ISC 12th Syllabus

Students who are studying in for CISCE Board Class (XII) they are informed that the latest notification of Syllabus is now
 issued by Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations Board. Candidates may download ISC 12th Syllabus with useful PDF files of Pattern. Keen candidates are now at the accurate place to get all the latest and exact information regarding ISC 12th Syllabus. On this web page we are giving whole information about syllabus of CISCE Board Class (XII) exam. Keen students may get success in this exam easily through better preparation but for that students are required to get better study material which is published here. ISC 10th/ 12th exam will organize on due date by Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations Board.

For full and well defined syllabus of ISC 12th, you need to visit our page. Day after day the competition is increasing for exam and to get success in the exam students are required to work very hard and stay notify of the complete latest syllabus. Dear contenders, you must be happy to know that we have ISC 12th Syllabus and you can study it by noting it down. Please get ISC 12th syllabus and exam pattern from this web page.

The exam pattern and all the marks structure is also published on this webpage, so you can check it also. Applied candidates must visit the official webpage of Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations Board y and search the link as ISC 12th Syllabus. Dear students if you are facing any type of difficulty then you can check the provided below details regarding CISCE Board Class (XII) Exam Syllabus. Candidates will be able to take admission in next class after CISCE Board class (XII) clear examination so here we have full syllabus and exam pattern by which students can get an idea regrading exam paper.

Short Details of 12th Syllabus

Conducted Body
Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations Board
Details About
ISC 12th Syllabus
Name of the Exam
CISCE Board Class (XII) Exam
Exam Date
Updated Soon
Syllabus Status
Available 12th Syllabus Full Details

ISC 12th Syllabus for English
Prose and Drama
Life of the playwright and novelist and important events therein.
Evaluation of characters and the roles played by them in the text.
Description of each incident in the play or novel and its significance.
Important themes and motifs of the text.
Relationships between characters and incidents.
Patterns and nuances of the text.
Fantasy and the supernatural.
Stylistic and narrative devices.
Students’ personal response to an assessment of the novel/play.
Humour, pathos, tragedy, sarcasm and so on in the texts.
The novel/play in the context of contemporary society.

1.    Symbolism and Imagery.
2.    Fantasy and the supernatural if present in any poem.
3.    Patterns and nuances of the poems.
4.    Important themes of the poems.
5.    A thorough knowledge of the poets’ lives and styles of writing.
6.    simile
climax and anti-climax
7.    Different types of poems with their characteristics and features:

sonnet – both Petrarchan (Italian) and Shakespearean
blank verse
free verse
narrative poetry
pastoral poetry
dramatic monologue
romantic poetry
8.    All literary devices in detail and how to recognize them:

Life of the poet and how it has impacted his/her style of writing
Autobiographical element in the poem
Type of poem
Mood and atmosphere
Different levels of meaning in the poem, if any
Rhyme scheme and its significance
Literary devices

ISC 12th Syllabus For Chemistry


1. Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
Normality, molality, molarity, mole fraction, as measures of concentration
Raoult's law and colligative properties
Nonvolatile, non electrolytic solute
Dissociation - Electrolytic solute
Relative molecular mass of non-volatile substances:
By relative lowering of vapour pressure.
Depression in freezing point.
Elevation in boiling point method.
Osmotic pressure and its application in the determination of relative molecular mass.
Van’t Hoff factor
Van’t Hoff equation and its interpretation
Simple numerical problems on different methods mentioned above for the determination of molecular masses. Abnormal molecular masses in case of electrolytes and in case of solutes which associate.

2. States of Matter: Structure and Properties

Solid State: Crystalline and amorphous substances; lattice; unit cell; 3–D packing of atoms in a crystal lattice; relation between radius, edge length and nearest neighbour distance of atoms in a unit cell; density of a unit cell; interstitial void; imperfections in solids, ionic, metallic and atomic solids, electrical and magnetic properties.

3. Chemical Kinetics: Qualitative meaning of chemical kinetics, comparison with chemical dynamics; slow and fast reactions; rate of reactions; factors affecting the rate of reaction such as: concentration, temperature, nature of reactants and products, surface area of reactants, presence of catalyst and radiation; Rate constant; Rate law; Law of Mass Action; concept of energy barrier; threshold energy, activation energy; formation of activated complex; exothermic and endothermic reactions; collision theory for a chemical change; order of a reaction; rate equation of zero and first order reaction; half life period; molecularity of a reaction; mechanism of elementary and overall reaction; variation of rate constant with temperature; Arrhenius equation – K=Ae-Ea/RT; related graphs; catalyst.

4. Chemical Equilibria: Reversible reactions and dynamic equilibrium. The concept of equilibrium constant in terms of concentration or partial pressure to indicate the composition of the equilibrium mixture. The following are the examples: the dissociation of dinitrogen tetroxide, hydrolysis of simple esters, the Contact Process for the manufacture of sulphuric acid, the synthesis of ammonia by Haber’s process.
Le Chatelier’s Principle and its applications to chemical equilibria.

5. Ionic Equilibria
Ostwald’s dilution law and its derivation. Strength of acids and bases based on their dissociation constant.
Arrhenius, Brönsted-Lowry and Lewis concept of acids and bases, Multistage ionization of acids and bases with examples.
Ionic product of water, pH of solutions and pH indicators.
Common ion effect.
Salt hydrolysis.
Buffer solutions.
Solubility product and its applications.

6. Electro chemistry
Faraday’s laws of Electrolysis, Coulometer.
Relation between Faraday, Avogadro’s number and charge on an electron. F = NAe should be given (no details of Millikan’s experiment are required).
Galvanic cells, mechanism of current production in a galvanic cell; and electrode potential, standard hydrogen electrode, electrochemical series, Nernst equation.
Electrolytic conductance: specific conductance. Measuring of molar and equivalent conductance; Kohlrausch's law.


7. Coordination Compounds: Concept of complexes; definition of ligands; classification of ligands, coordination number, coordination sphere; IUPAC nomenclature of coordination compounds; isomerism; magnetic characteristics of coordination compounds on the basis of valence bond theory and crystal field theory. Stability constant; uses of coordination compounds in different fields

8. Chemistry of p-Block Elements: Group 16, 17, 18 - The following should be included: (a) Occurrence, (b) Physical State, (c) Electronic configuration, (d) Atomic and ionic radii, (e) Common oxidation states, (f) Electronegative character, (g) Ionisation enthalpy, (h) Oxidising nature, (i) Nature of oxides, hydroxides, hydrides, carbonates, nitrates, chlorides, sulphates, wherever applicable.  

9. Preparation/ Manufacture, Properties and Uses of Compounds of Groups 16, 17
Ozone, Hydrogen peroxide, Sulphur Dioxide, Sulphuric Acid, Hydrochloric Acid

10. Chemistry of Transition and Inner-Transition Elements
D-Block: 3d, 4d and 5d series
F-Block: 4f and 5f series
Study in terms of metallic character, atomic and ionic radii, ionisation enthalpy, oxidisation states, variable valency, formation of coloured compounds, formation of complexes, alloy formation.
Lanthanoids: Lanthanoid contraction, shielding effect, radioactive nature.
Actinoids: general electronic configuration, oxidation state, comparison with lanthanoids and uses.
Metallurgy of Al, Zn, Fe, Cu and Ag in terms of equations, thermodynamics and electrochemical principles involved in the extraction of metals; electrolytic refining and uses.
Silver nitrate: equation of preparation, use in laboratory and in photography.
Potassium permanganate: structure, shape, equation of extraction from pyrolusite ore, its oxidising nature in acidic, basic and neutral medium, use in redox titration.
Potassium dichromate: equation of extraction from chromite ore, structure and shape of molecule and its use in titration.

11. Alkyl and Aryl Halides
The nomenclature of aliphatic compounds containing halogen atom.
Preparation, properties, uses of haloalkanes.
Preparation, properties, and uses of the following: ethyl bromide, chloroform, iodoform, haloform reaction.
Organometallic compounds.

12. Alcohols and Phenols
Classification, general formulae, structure and nomenclature.
Methods of preparation, manufacture, properties and uses.
Preparation, properties and uses of ethane-1, 2 diol, propane-1, 2, 3 triol (outline- no details)
Conversion of one alcohol into another.
Distinction between primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols.

13. Ethers, Carbonyl Compounds
Ethers: general formula and structure. Nomenclature; preparation, properties and uses of ether (outline, no detail), with reference to diethyl ether
Carbonyl compounds: methods of preparation, properties and uses of aldehydes and ketones.

14. Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
Carboxylic acids: classification, general formulae, structure and nomenclature: monocarboxylic acids, general methods of preparation, properties and uses of acids.
Acid derivatives: laboratory preparation, properties and uses of acetyl chloride, acetic anhydride, acetamide, ethylacetate; urea preparation (by Wohler's synthesis), properties and uses of urea, manufacture of urea from ammonia and by cyanamide process.

15. Cyanides, Isocyanides, Nitro compounds, Amines and Diazonium Salts
Their nomenclature, general methods of preparation, correlation of physical properties with their structure, chemical properties, their uses

16. Polymers
Polymerisation: the principle of addition and condensation polymerisation illustrated by reference to natural and synthetic polymers e.g. proteins, polyolefins and synthetic fibres; thermoplastics, thermosetting plastics, chemotrophs; reference should also be made to the effect of chain-length and cross-linking on physical properties of polymers.

17. Biomolecules
Carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes, vitamins and nucleic acids

ISC 12 Syllabus For Mathematics
1. Determinants and Matrices:
(i) Determinants
Properties of determinants.
Simple problems using properties of determinants
Cramer's Rule
(ii) Matrices
Martin’s Rule
2. Boolean Algebra:
Boolean algebra as an algebraic structure, principle of duality, Boolean function. Switching circuits, application of Boolean algebra to switching circuits.
3. Conics:
As a section of a cone.
Definition of Foci, Directrix, Latus Rectum.
PS = ePL where P is a point on the conics, S is the focus, PL is the perpendicular distance of the point from the directrix.
(i) Parabola
(ii) Ellipse
(iii) Hyperbola
4. Inverse Trigonometric Function
5. Calculus:
(i) Differential Calculus
(ii) Integral Calculus
6. Correlation and Regression:
Definition and meaning of correlation and regression coefficient.
Coefficient of Correlation by Karl Pearson.
Rank correlation by Spearman’s (Correction included).
Lines of regression of x on y and y on x.
7. Probability:
Random experiments and their outcomes.
Events: sure events, impossible events, mutually exclusive events, independent events and dependent events.
Definition of probability of an event.
Laws of probability: addition and multiplication laws, conditional probability (excluding Baye’s theorem).
8. Complex Numbers:
Argument and conjugate of complex numbers.
Sum, difference, product and quotient of two complex numbers additive and multiplicative inverse of a complex number.
Simple locus question on complex number;
Triangle inequality.
Square root of a complex number.
Demoivre’s theorem and its simple applications.
Cube roots of unity: 1,ω,ω2 ; application problems.
9. Differential Equations:
Differential equations, order and degree.
Solution of differential equations.
Variable separable.
Homogeneous equations and equations reducible to homogeneous form.
Linear form
10. Vectors
Scalar (dot) product of vectors.
Cross product - its properties - area of a triangle, collinear vectors.
Scalar triple product - volume of a parallelopiped, co-planarity.
Proof of Formulae (Using Vectors):
Sine rule
Cosine rule
Projection formula
Area of a Δ = ½ ab sin C
11. Co-ordinate Geometry in 3-Dimensions
(i) Lines:
Cartesian and vector equations of a line through one and two points.
Coplanar and skew lines.
Conditions for intersection of two lines.
Shortest distance between two lines.
(ii) Planes:
Cartesian and vector equation of a plane.
Direction ratios of the normal to the plane.
One point form.
Normal form.
Intercept form.
Distance of a point from a plane.
Angle between two planes, a line and a plane.
Equation of a plane through the intersection of two planes
12. Probability:
Baye’s theorem; theoretical probability distribution, probability distribution function; binomial distribution - its mean and variance.
13. Discount:
True discount; banker's discount; discounted value; present value; cash discount, bill of exchange.
14. Annuities:
Meaning, formulae for present value and amount; deferred annuity, applied problems on loans, sinking funds, scholarships. NOTE: Annuity due is required to be covered.
15. Linear Programming:
Introduction, definition of related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization, isoprofit, isocost lines; advantages of linear programming; limitations of linear programming; application areas of linear programming; different types of linear programming (L.P.), problems, mathematical formulation of L.P problems, graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions, feasible and infeasible solutions, optimum feasible solution.
16. Application of derivatives in Commerce and Economics:
Cost function, average cost, marginal cost, revenue function and break even point.
17. Index numbers and moving averages:
Price index or price relative.
Simple aggregate method.
Weighted aggregate method.
Simple average of price relatives.
Weighted average of price relatives (cost of living index, consumer price index).

ISC 12 Syllabus For Physics


1. Electrostatics
Coulomb's law, S.I. unit of charge; permittivity of free space.
Concept of electric field E = F/qo; Gauss' theorem and its applications.
Electric dipole; electric field at a point on the axis and perpendicular bisector of a dipole; electric dipole moment; torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.
Electric lines of force.
Electric potential and potential energy; potential due to a point charge and due to a dipole; potential energy of an electric dipole in an electric field. Van de Graff generator.
Capacitance of a conductor C = Q/V, farad; capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor; C = ε0A/d. Capacitors in series and parallel combinations; effective capacitance and charge distribution. Energy stored
Dielectrics (elementary ideas only); permittivity and relative permittivity of a dielectric (εr = ε/εo). Effects on pd, charge and capacitance. Electric polarisation.

2. Current Electricity
Mechanism of flow of current in metals, drift velocity and mobility of electrons, Ohm’s Law and its proof. Resistance and resistivity and their relation to drift velocity of electrons; description of resistivity and conductivity based on electron theory; effect of temperature on resistance, colour coding of resistance.
Potential difference as the power supplied divided by the current. Ohm's law (V-I characteristics) and its limitations; Combinations of resistors in series and parallel; Electric energy and power.
Electromotive force in a cell; internal resistance and back emf. Combination of cells in series, parallel and mixed grouping.
Kirchoff's laws and their simple applications to circuits with resistors and sources of emf; Wheatstone bridge, metre-bridge and potentiometer; use to measure potential difference and for comparison of emf and determination of internal resistance of sources of current; use of resistors (shunts and multipliers) in ammeters and voltmeters.

3. Magnetism
Magnetic field B, definition from magnetic force on a moving charge; magnetic field lines; magnetic field and magnetic flux density; the earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements; Magnetic field of a magnetic dipole.
Properties of dia, para and ferromagnetic substances; susceptibility and relative permeability, hysteresis.

4. Electromagnetism
Oersted's experiment; Biot-Savart law, the tesla; magnetic field near a long straight wire, at the centre of a circular loop, and at a point on the axis of a circular coil carrying current. Amperes circuital law and its application to obtain magnetic field due to a long straight wire and a solenoid.
Force on a moving charge in a magnetic field; force on a current carrying conductor kept in a magnetic field; force between two long and parallel current carrying wires; definition of ampere based on the force between two current carrying wires. Cyclotron.
A current loop as a magnetic dipole; magnetic dipole moment; torque on a current loop (magnetic dipole); moving coil galvanometer.
Electromagnetic induction, magnetic flux and induced emf; Faraday's laws and Lenz's law, motional emf; eddy currents.
Mutual and self inductance: the henry. Growth and decay of current in LR and RC circuits (dc) (graphical approach), time constant. Transformer.
Simple a.c. generators. Basic differences between a.c. and d.c.

5. Alternating Current Circuits
Change of voltage and current with time, phase; peak and rms values of voltage and current; their relation in sinusoidal case.
Variation of voltage and current in a.c. circuits consisting of only a resistor, only an inductor and only a capacitor (phasor representation), phase lag and phase lead.
The LCR series circuit: phasor diagram, expression for V or I; phase lag/lead; impedance of a series LCR circuit (arrived at by phasor diagram); Special cases for RL and RC circuits.
Power P associated with LCR circuit = ½VoIo cosφ =VrmsIrms cosφ = Irms2R; power absorbed and power dissipated; choke coil (choke and starter); electrical resonance; bandwidth of signals and Q factor; oscillations in an LC circuit (ω = 1/√LC).


6. Wave Optics
Complete electromagnetic spectrum from radio waves to gamma rays; transverse nature of electromagnetic waves, Huygen's principle; laws of reflection and refraction from Huygen's principle.
Conditions for interference of light, interference of monochromatic light by double slit; Young’s double slit experiment, measurement of wave length.
Single slit Fraunhofer diffraction (elementary explanation).
Plane polarised electromagnetic wave (elementary idea), methods of polarisation of light. Brewster's law; polaroids.

7. Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
Reflection of light by spherical mirrors.
Refraction of light at a plane interface, Snell's law; total internal reflection and critical angle; total reflecting prisms and optical fibres.
Refraction through a prism, minimum deviation and derivation of relation between n, A and δmin.
Refraction at a single spherical surface (relation between n1, n2, u, v and R); refraction through thin lenses (lens maker's formula and formula relating u, v, f, n, R1 and R2); lens formula, combined focal length of two thin lenses in contact. Combination of lenses and mirrors [Silvering of lens excluded] and magnification. Spherical aberration.
Dispersion; dispersive power; pure and impure spectrum; Scattering of light. Chromatic aberration.
Simple microscope; Compound microscope and their magnifying power.
Simple astronomical telescope (refracting and reflecting), magnifying power and resolving power of a simple astronomical telescope.
Human Eye, Defects of vision and their correction.

8. Electrons and Photons
Photo electric effect, quantization of radiation; Einstein's equation; threshold frequency; work function; stopping potential; energy and momentum of a photon. Determination of Planck’s Constant.
Wave particle duality, De Broglie equation, phenomenon of electron diffraction (qualitative only).
9. Atoms
Charge and size of nuclei (α-particle scattering); atomic structure; Bohr's postulates; radii of Bohr orbits for hydrogen atom; energy of the hydrogen atom in the nth state; line spectra of hydrogen and calculation of ΔE and f for different lines.
Production of X-rays; maximum frequency for a given tube potential. Characteristic and continuous X -rays. Moseley’s law.

10. Nuclei
Atomic masses; Isotopes, Isobars and Isotones; unified atomic mass unit u and its value in MeV; composition and size of nucleus; mass defect and binding energy. Energy - mass equivalence.
Radioactivity: nature and radioactive decay law, half-life, mean life and decay constant. Nuclear reactions.

11. Nuclear Energy
Nuclear fission; chain reaction; principle of operation of a nuclear reactor.
Nuclear fusion; thermonuclear fusion as the source of the sun's energy.

12. Semiconductor Devices
Energy bands in solids; energy band diagrams for distinction between conductors, insulators and semi-conductors - intrinsic and extrinsic; electrons and holes in semiconductors.
Junction diode; depletion region; forward and reverse biasing, V-I characteristics; half wave and a full wave rectifier; solar cell, LED and photodiode. Zener diode.
Junction transistor; npn and pnp transistors; current gain in a transistor and transistor as an amplifier in common emitter mode (only circuit diagram and qualitative treatment); transistor as a switch; oscillator.
Elementary idea of discreet and integrated circuits, analogue and digital signals. Logic gates (symbols; working with truth tables; applications and uses) - NOT, OR, AND, NOR, NAND. Combination of gates.

13. Communication Systems
Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation, need for modulation, amplitude and frequency modulation, bandwidth of signals, bandwidth of transmission medium, basic elements of a communication system (block diagram only).

ISC 12th Syllabus Biology


1. Origin and Evolution of Life

Origin of life: living and nonliving; chemical evolution; organic evolution - Oparin ideas, Miller-Urey experiments; interrelationship among organisms and evidences of evolution: morphological evidences - homology and analogy, vestigial organs, atavism; embryological, palaeontological (fossils) and biogeographical evidences, molecular (genetic) evidences.
Theories of evolution: Lamarckism: evidences in favour of Lamarckism (giraffe’s neck), criticism of Lamarckism; Darwinism: basic postulates of Darwinism, drawbacks of Darwinism, Neo-Darwinism (Modern Synthetic Theory); Hardy Weinberg’s principle; variations: causes of variation, mutation, selected examples and types of natural selection (DDT resistance in mosquito, sickle-cell anaemia); artificial selection; adaptations. Human evolution: Dryopithecus, Australopithecus, Homo erectus, Homo neanderthalensis, Cromagnon man and Homo sapiens; differences between apes and man.


2. Multicellularity

A. Plants
T. S of young dicot and monocot stem, T. S of young dicot and monocot root and V. S. of dicot and monocot leaf. Secondary growth in stem: brief idea of formation of secondary xylem and secondary phloem by cambium ring formation, annual rings.
Absorption and movement of water in plants: diffusion, imbibition, osmosis, osmotic pressure, turgor pressure, wall pressure, water potential, diffusion pressure deficit. Mechanism of water absorption (active and passive absorption), root pressure, transpiration, transpiration pull theory for ascent of sap, mechanism of opening and closing of stomata (active potassium theory), guttation.
Photosynthesis: ultra structure of chloroplast, photochemical and biosynthetic phases, absorption and action spectra, factors affecting photosynthesis, photophosphorylation; photorespiration, transport of solutes.
Reproduction and development in angiosperms: vegetative reproduction, structure of a typical flower, types of inflorescence (racemose and cymose), sexual reproduction: development of male and female gametophytes, placentation, pollination, fertilisation (Amphimixis) and formation of endosperm, embryo, seed and fruits (broadly classified). Apomixis, Polyembryony, Parthenocarpy. Significance of seed and fruit formation.
Differentiation and organ formation.

B. Animals
Reproduction (human): internal structure of human testis and ovary, menstrual cycle, gametogenesis, embryonic development in mammals (up to three germ layers). Medical termination of pregnancy, infertility. Amniocentesis. Assisted reproductive technologies.

3. Genetics
Fundamentals of Genetics: concept of alleles: dominant and recessive; phenotype and genotype, homozygous and heterozygous, mono and dihybrid crosses.
Mendel’s experiments with peas; Mendel’s Principles of inheritance, incomplete dominance, co-dominance and multiple alleles, Polygenic inheritance, Pleiotropy.
Genes: packaging of hereditary material in chromosomes. Linkage and crossing over; mutation, sex determination and sex linkage, search for DNA as genetic material, central dogma; genetic code, protein synthesis. Human genome project. DNA finger printing.
Recombinant DNA technology and its applications.

4. Applications of Biology
Crop improvement: methods of crop improvement: selection, hybridisation, plant breeding, plant introduction, tissue culture; single cell protein; biofortification; biopesticides.
Biotic community: intraspecific and interspecific relationship, commensalism, predation, scavenging, parasitism, symbiosis, biotic stability, biotic succession and ecological adaptations.
Biodiversity today: importance of biodiversity, types of biodiversity, genetic conservation, gene banks and cryopreservation. Loss of biodiversity - threatened, endangered and extinct species. Strategies for conservation of biodiversity - in-situ and ex-situ
Biofertilisers: green manure, nitrogen fixation - symbiotic and non-symbiotic organisms, nitrogen cycle.
Human Diseases: Body’s defence mechanisms: (specific and non-specific); immune disorders (SCID and AIDS); allergies, interferons. Communicable diseases: causative agent, symptoms and prevention of the following: bacterial diseases (typhoid and pneumonia), viral diseases (common cold, swine flu and dengue), protozoa (malaria, and amoebiasis), helminthes (ascariasis, ringworm, and filariasis); sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Non-communicable diseases: cancer (types, causes, diagnosis and treatment); human genetic disorders: (haemophilia, thalassaemia, Down’s syndrome, Klinefelter’s syndrome, Turner syndrome). Rh factor incompatibility - during transfusion and pregnancy. Genetic counselling; a brief idea of stem cells, organ transplants and immunosuppression
Adolescent issues: alcoholism and drugs.
Biomedical Engineering: (only applications) Instruments - ECG, EEG, CT scan, ultrasound, MRI, pacemakers, implants, dialysis, external prosthesis.
Human population: population growth curves, causes of increase in population.
Animal Husbandry: Dairy farm management, poultry farm management, apiculture, pisiculture.

ISC 12th Syllabus for Commerce
1. Business Environment
Concept and importance of Business Environment.
2. Financing
Capital: Sources of finance for sole trader; partnership; Joint Stock Company; financial planning.Sources of finance for a Joint Stock Company.
Different types of shares: equity, preference. Bonus shares, rights issue, ESOP, Sweat Equity Shares, Retained earnings.
Loan capital: debentures.
Loans from commercial banks and Financial Institutions.
Short-term sources of funds.
Banking - latest trends.
3. Management
Management: Meaning, objectives and characteristics of management.
Nature of Management - Science, Art and Profession.
Importance of Management.
Principles of Management: nature of principles; need for principles.
Functions of Management: Planning; Organising; Staffing; Directing; Controlling and Coordinating.
4. Marketing
Marketing: concept and functions.
Marketing Mix.
Consumer protection: rights of consumers, methods of consumer protection.

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